The Palaeography of Koan Inscriptions:
a provisional sequence
Second half fourth century BC
R. Herzog, Heilige Gesteze 11
72 dpi image of HG 11.
This inscription, which records regulations for the sacred grove (of Apollo) on the site of the later Asklepieion, is cut in a tight stoichedon pattern. Herzog dated it to the late 5th century, but Susan Sherwin-White has argued that better parallels for its tightness of the layout and incipient apices are to be found in the last quarter of the 4th century.
R. Herzog, Heilige Gesteze 3
72 dpi image of HG 3.
HG 3 is one of a series of monthly cult calendars inscribed together on individual stelai, dating to the middle (Herzog) or last generation of the fourth century (Sherwin-White), of which 4 survive, all cut in the same hand (HG 1-4).
Late fourth century BC
R. Herzog, Heilige Gesteze 5
72 dpi image of HG 5 face B fr. a.
As Herzog noted, this diagraphe for the priesthoods of Zeus Polieus and the Twelve Gods (face A) and Apollo Dalios (face B) is cut in a similar, although not the same hand as HG 1-4.
R. Herzog, Heilige Gesteze 12 (lex sacra concerning the sacred grove of the Asklepieion)
72 dpi image of HG 12.
Herzog dated this sacred law to the fourth century, but Susan Sherwin-White (302 n. 99) preferred an early third century date because of the use of serifs by the stonecutter. Notice that, pace Sherwin-White, sigma has deeply indented and diverging, rather than parallel, top and bottom bars. Since a second sacred law introduced by Philistos the son of Aischinas, the proposer of HG 12, concerning the hieron of the Nymphs in the Asklepieion (Sokolowski, LSCG 152) has plain letter forms that would belong more happily in the last generation of the fourth-century, it seems better to follow Herzog rather than Sherwin-White and place HG 12 in the late fourth century too.
After ca. 307 BC
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 71 (Nikomedes decrees)
72 dpi image of ED 71 g A front (Samian decree for Nikomedes)
One of a series of decrees of various cities dating from c. 315-307 in honour of the Antigonid officer Nikomedes son of Aristandros of Kos inscribed together in the same hand on two opisthographic stelai.
Late fourth or early third century BC
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 57 (Proxeny decree fragment dated to monarchia of Sophilos)
72 dpi image of ED 57
ca. 280 BC
Chiron 28 (1998) 110-11, no. 7 (Koan decree for Antipatros at the court of Seleukos I)
72 dpi image of Chiron 28 (1998) 110-11, no. 7.
OGIS 43 (Chiron 29 (1999) 257-66, no. 2: Naxian decree for Koan judges sent by Bakchon)
72 dpi image of Chiron 29 (1999) 257-66, no. 2, fr. B.
ca. 278 BC
SIG3 398 (Koan participation in the Delphic Soteria)
72 dpi image of SIG3 398.
After 268 BC
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 61 + 89 (cult of Arsinoe)
72 dpi image of ED 61.
First half 3rd. century BC
Iscrizioni di Cos 190 (proxeny decree for [Metrodor]os son of Timokles of Amphipolis)
72 dpi image of ED 190.
ca. 242 BC (Koan Asylia and Asklepieia recognitions)
Welles, Royal Correspondence 26-28 (letter of Ptolemy III)
72 dpi image of RC 28.
Welles, Royal Correspondence 25 (letter of Ziaelas)
72 dpi image of RC 25.
K. J. Rigsby, Asylia no. 28 (Ainos)
72 dpi image of Asylia no. 28.
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 38 (unidentified city)
72 dpi image of ED 38.
K. J. Rigsby, Asylia nos. 25-27, 45 (Kassandreia, Amphipolis, Philippoi, Kerkyra)
72 dpi image of Asylia no. 25 (Kassandreia).
K. J. Rigsby, Asylia no. 32 (Kios)
72 dpi image of Asylia no. 32.
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 47a (epidosis for cult of Askepios)
72 dpi image of ED47 face A.
For the connection of this epidosis with the announcement of the Asklepieia and its date ca. 242, see K. and L. Hallof, Ch. Habicht, Chiron 28 (1998), 143-54, no. 25
After 241 BC
OGIS 42 (Decree for Kaphisophon)
72 dpi image of OGIS 42.
R. Herzog, Heilige Gesetze 8 (Lex sacra on ritual purification for cults of Demeter)
72 dpi image of HG 8.
The proposer of this law, Pasias the son of Thessalos, appears in Chiron 28 (1998), 143-54, no. 25 (above), A 63 where a contribution is made on his behalf by [Thessal]os the son of Klenagoras. If Pasias was a minor then, HG 8 should be somewhat later. Christian Habicht, in his list of Koan monarchoi, dates Theukles, the monarchos of HG 8, ca. 240 BC.
The lettering of HG 8 is similar to that of Theoros p. 28 (below) and TC test. XII.
P. Boesch, Theoros p. 28 (schedule of Koan theoroi to announce the Asklepieia)
72 dpi image of Theoros p. 28.
This appears to be cut in a similar hand to the homopoliteia oath, TC test. XII and HG 8 (above).
ca. 222-219 BC
Inscriptiones Creticae I.viii.7 (Knossos (and Gortyn) honour the Koan doctor Hermias)
72 dpi image of IC I.viii.7.
ca. 220 BC
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 132 (Halikarnassos honours Hermias)
72 dpi image of ED 132 fr. a.
ca. 218-208 BC
Syll3 590 (Koan recognition of Didymeia)
72 dpi image of Syll3 590.
Last quarter 3rd century BC
Paton-Hicks, Inscriptions of Cos 387 (subscription from Antimachia for an Aphrodision)
72 dpi image of PH 387.
This list, which has three names in common with PH 10 and four from the previous generation, should be contemporary or a short generation earlier than it.
SEG XVIII, 329 (the Delphic oracle responds to Makareus)
72 dpi image of SEG XVIII, 329.
The Makareus son of Philokleidas who solicited this Delphic oracle is separately attested as a prostates in ED 49 of ca. 205/4 (monarchia of Ariston) and is possibly to be identified with the eponymous monarchos Makareus of ca. 220 BC in ED 132.
Herzog, HG p. 30 (Höghammar, Sculpture and Society no. 61)
72 dpi image of HG p. 30.
This fragment of a dedication of a statue base to Antigonos (Doson?) has an early Koan example of alpha with broken cross-bar.
ca. 206-204 BC
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 52 (victors at the Dionysia in the monarchiai of Althaimenes and Ariston)
72 dpi image of ED 52 face A.
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 49 (Decree concerning new warships, dated to the monarchia of Ariston)
72 dpi image of ED 49.
Iscrizioni di Cos EV 2 (monarchos Theukles)
72 dpi image of EV 2.
ca. 202/1 BC
Paton-Hicks, Inscriptions of Cos 10 (Wartime Subscription proposed by Diokles son of Leodamas)
72 dpi image of PH 10, face A, ll. 1-42.
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 206 (Another copy of PH 10)
72 dpi image of ED 206, face A.
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 227 (Another copy of PH 10)
72 dpi image of ED 227.
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 42 (Inventory of Apollo at Halasarna)
72 dpi image of ED 42.
Lettering and prosopography suggest that this is contemporary with ED 206, ED 227 and PH 10.
ca. 201-200 BC
Chiron 28 (1998) 116-21, no. 12 (Syll3 568: Decree of Halasarna for Diokles son of Leodamas)
72 dpi image of Syll3 568.
Syll3 567 and 569 were cut in a similar, but probably not the same, hand.
Syll3 569: Decree of Halasarna for Theukles son of Aglaos)
72 dpi image of Syll3 569.
ca. 200 BC
Tituli Calymnii test. XII (homopoliteia oath for Kalymna and Kos)
72 dpi image of TC test. XII.
ca. 196/5 BC
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 178 (diagraphe for priesthood of Aphrodite Pandamos)
72 dpi image of ED 178 face A, fr. b.
72 dpi image of ED 178 face B, fr. a.
72 dpi image of ED 178 face B, fr. b.
This diagraphe, dated to the monarchia of Theudoros, refers to earthquake damage to the sanctuary of Aphrodite, apparently from the great earthquake of 198; the reverse side (B) is inscribed with a subscription list dating shortly afterwards.
Early 2nd century BC
Iscrizioni di Cos EV 212 (dedication by agoranomoi)
72 dpi image of EV 212.
one of the agoranomoi who made this dedication to the gods and the demos, Chairedamos the son of Themistokles also appears as a contributor in PH 10, b 32.
ca. 182/1 BC
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 255 (Pergamene Nikephoria)
72 dpi image of ED 255.
Letter of Eumenes II and Koan answering decree dated to 182/1; the lettering shows a relatively early example of Zeta formed with a diagonal rather than a vertical central stroke.
ca. 182-79 BC
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 5 (Ariarathes IV and Antiochis of Cappadocia)
72 dpi image of ED 5.
ca. 180-75 BC
Paton-Hicks, Inscriptions of Cos 367 (Register of citizens sharing in cults of Apollo and Herakles at Halasarna)
72 dpi image of PH 367.
The reinscription of this register is dated to the monarchia of Praximenes, which Christian Habicht places, on strong prosopographical grounds, ca. 180-75 BC.
ASA 1963-64 no. XI (Isthmos registration)
72 dpi image of ASA 25-26 (1963-64) 176-7, no. XI face A.
The Isthmos registers of citizens eligible to hold the monarchia published by G. Pugliese Carratelli in ASA 25-26 (1963-64), nos. IX-XI, should be contemporary with PH 367 and, indeed, appear to have been inscribed by the same stonecutter.
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 37 (Subscription from two successive years)
72 dpi image of ED 37 face A.
For the date and prosopography of this subscription, see K. and L. Hallof, Ch. Habicht, Chiron 28 (1998), 157-61, no. 26, where it is re-edited with an unpublished fragment from Herzog's excavations.
ca. 175 BC
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 216 (Diagraphe for priesthood of Dionysos Thyllophoros)
72 dpi image of ED 216 face A.
This diagraphe, which concludes with an amendment proposed by [Pa]namyas Theudotou imposing an annual charge on the priest of Dionysos of 100 dr. for repair of the Antigoneion, dates approximately a generation after PH 10, since the father of Ariston Aristoboulou, one of the drafters of the diagraphe, appears at PH 10 d 48-49. Segre preferred a date a generation earlier than PH 10, but this fits unhappily both with the lettering of the inscription and with the other prosopographical links surrounding it.
Before ca. 167 BC
Tituli Calymnii XXIV and 78 (Kalymnian honours for the Koan doctor Antipatros son of Dioskouridas)
150 dpi image of TC 78.
150 dpi image of TC test. XXIV.
Both Calymnian (TC 78) and Koan (TC test XXIV) copies of the inscription appear to have been the work of the same stonecutter.
After ca. 167 BC
Chiron 29 (1999), 284-93, no. 8 (Decree of Chalkis for Koan judges)
72 dpi image of Chiron 29 (1999), 284-93, no. 8, frs. b-c.
Chiron 29 (1999), 293-300, no. 9 (Decree of Eretria for Koan judges)
72 dpi image of Chiron 29 (1999), 293-300, no. 9.
Mid-2nd century BC
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 131 (Maiuri, NS 434: Honours for a citizen benefactor)
72 dpi image of ED 131.
This inscription appears to be cut in the same lettering as Chiron 19 (1999), 284-93 no. 8 (above), and refers to benefactions obtained by the honorand from an Attalos, presumably Attalos II (159-38 BC).
Chiron 28 (1998), 88-95, no. 1 (Honours for the dikastagogos Theugenes)
72 dpi image of Chiron 28 (1998), 88-95, no. 1.
Chiron 28 (1998), 95-96, no. 2 + 113-14 no. 10 (Honours for an unnamed dikastagogos)
72 dpi image of Chiron 28 (1998), 95-96, no. 2.
Paton-Hicks, Inscriptions of Cos 34 (ED 82: foundation of Pythokleia festival)
72 dpi image of PH 34.
This inscription was dated to the mid-3rd century by Susan Sherwin-White on the basis of its lettering: "PH 34 is inscribed in a small regular hand, with small apices, generally characteristic of the second half of the third century BC and most closely paralleled by the asylia decrees of 242 BC" (ZPE 24 (1977), 214 n. 34).
This does not seem quite right. The lettering is large and somewhat iregular; letter shapes and the articulation of the script are similar to those of Syll3 1000 and ED 180 (below). The difference in scale of the lettering make a secure judgment difficult, but PH 34 may be the work of the same stonecutter.
PH 34 shares the same monarchos (Philiskos) as the Halasarnitan deme decree for the doctor Onasandros who was a pupil of the Antipatros honoured in TC test. XXIV and 78 (above) and should, therefore, date around the middle of the second century BC.
2nd half 2nd century BC
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 45 (Herzog, HG 9: gymnasial calendar)
72 dpi image of ED 45.
This gymnasial calendar mentions processions to honour King Ptolemy and King Attalos, presumably Attalos II (159-38 BC), as well as an Attaleia festival and the Pythokleia established by PH 34.
Late 2nd century BC
In this category I list a group of leges sacrae which appear to have been the work of the same stonecutter.
Syll3 1000 (diagraphe listing sacrifices to be performed by various groups in the community)
72 dpi image of Syll3 1000.
Iscrizioni di Kos ED 180 (diagraphe for sale of the priesthood of Herakles Kallinikos)
72 dpi image of ED 180.
A date in the last generation of the 2nd century BC is indicated if the prostates Eukarpos Kleonikou is the son of the trierarch Kleonikos Eukarpou in IG XII 8, 260 of 82 BC (Ch. Habicht, ZPE 112 (1996), 88).
An unpublished diagraphe for the priesthood of Aphrodite Pandemos and Pontia, to be published by Robert Parker and Dirk Obbink in Chiron 30 (2000), appears to be another example of the work of the same stonecutter.
ca. 84-81 BC
Iscrizioni di Cos ED 7 (RDGE 49: letter of Sulla to the Koans)
72 dpi image of ED 7 face A.